Pathological examination is essential for the definitive diagnosis of cancer and prognostic parameters for each diagnosed cancer are determined as a result of pathological examination. However, for the patient who has received the pathology report, the report may contain difficult terms to understand. In determining the treatment options to be given to the patient (for example, hormone therapy in breast cancer, targeted therapy in the treatment of lung cancer, smart drugs in colon / bowel cancer), a number of special pathological examination methods are required. Pathological examination is an important keystone in determining the treatment response of the patient.
The definitive diagnosis of cancer is made as a result of pathological examination. Results obtained after pathological examinations are reported by pathologists. Pathology report is one of the most important criteria in the follow-up and treatment of cancer patients. Complete progression of treatment can be particularly important in determining the right treatment options and evaluating response after treatment.

The Department of Pathology provides services for patients diagnosed with cancer at various stages:
• Many prognostic (determining the course) parameters for each cancer diagnosed are determined as a result of pathological examination.
• A number of special pathological examination methods are required for the selection of treatment options to be applied to the patient (eg hormone therapy in breast cancer).
• Determining the treatment target in targeted therapies is possible with pathological examinations.
• After a treatment is given to the patient, pathological examination is also an important keystone in determining treatment response. With the pathological examination we are able to objectively evaluate how much tumor remains, and how much has decreased after treatment and the response rate to the treatment given.
• Pathological examination is required for the differential diagnosis of cancer from other diseases in a patient who has undergone cancer treatment.

Targeted Therapy and the Role of Pathology
Unlike conventional chemotherapy agents in cancer treatment, new treatment options that are targeting only tumor cells are increasingly being used. In targeted therapy, only the cells targeted by the drug (cancer cells) are eliminated/inactivated or the immune system is enabled to recognize those cells, without damaging other cells through receptors that will recognize cancer cells. Molecular markers that enable cancer cells to be targeted are determined as a result of pathological examinations. In this respect, pathological examination is critical in new generation cancer treatments.

Pathological examination is repeatable and allows the patient to benefit from new advances in cancer
With the procedures performed during pathological examination, biopsy specimens can be stored for many years to be evaluated. Thus, it may be possible to perform re-examinations when necessary. This is important for evaluating the treatment options developed after diagnosis as well as diagnostic revisions. When a second opinion is requested, the patient's slides and blocks can be taken from the laboratory where the first evaluation was made and examined in another center.